Saturday, September 16, 2017

Magic Chemistry, Burning Money

The Magic of Chemistry Reaction


The chemistry of reaction may don't understand by us because it is not like what we see. The principle of burning process of all material are depend on the burning point of each material. When the heat can't reach the burning point of certain material so what we see is not like the actual chemical reaction happening.

Chemistry can use as magic show. Every show actually this is not magic but natural if you are a chemist. Using the natural reaction and incident, chemistry can show something to you that magic like. Some example a normal chemistry activity seem like a magic but this condition actually a natural event.

Burning Paper or Money.


Paper is not burnt because the flammable point of paper still don't over
Burning Money

Materials:
  • New Dollar bill (higher nominal if your are confidence)
  • Chemical glass (1000 ml)
  • Matches
  • Sodium Salt like Sodium Sulfide (in order the color of flame merge is yellow)
  • Solution of 50% alcohol (95%) and 50% water
A combustion reaction occur between alcohol and oxygen, producing heat and carbon dioxide and water.

The chemical reaction will like this:

C2H5OH + 4 O2 -----> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + energy

When the bill is soaked into the alcohol water mixture, alcohol has a high vapor pressure and mainly will on the outside of the material (dollar bill). When the bill is lift, the alcohol will burn. The temperature at the burning alcohol is not high enough to evaporate water so the material will not burn even after the burning process, the dollar bill seem rather wet. After the alcohol has burned, the flame goes out, leaving a slightly damp dollar bill.

Monday, August 21, 2017

Gypsum

What is gypsum?
Gypsum is usually used for interior design in the house building. Gypsum use to make up the good looking inside the house, because gypsum have smooth surface and look better after grinding with sand paper and then paint with white color. Other paint color may be applied but I still don't see other kind color applied for gypsum.

Chemically Gypsum have formula CaSO4, from this formula we can see that gypsum is produced from the reaction of Ca substance with SO4 substance like sulfuric acid. By apply energy on the reaction between Calk and Sulfuric acid can produce Gypsum at the end of the reaction. The real production process my more complicated because involve many parameters on process going.

On industry Gypsum can be produced especially to produce Gypsum, but in other plant Gypsum can be a side product like in Power Plant, as Gypsum is the side product on the chimney on purpose of environmental protection. The emission from power plant that much emit SO2 gas can be catch and react with lime to produce Gypsum. The reaction itself need special apparatus in order this process can be run.


Sunday, November 30, 2014

How to Produce Biodiesel

The general problem on natural energy source in the world have been thought by many scientist and technologist to create new energy synthetic to modified other energy that come from plant can be used also as energy in industry and in our home, because the plant energy source can be renewed, while energy from mineral can’t be renewed. Many scientist have try to produce biodiesel from many source but just few of their experiment can be applied into the real production.

Biodiesel Separation

Several oil plant can be proceed into fuel oil through several process stage. Most of the animal fats, vegetables and oils contain glycerin and are thus called triglycerides can be proceed to make biofuels, all the fats and oils are turned into esters, then separating the glycerin. At the end of the process, all the glycerin sinks down at the bottom and all the biodiesel rests at the top. The process through which the glycerin is separated from the biodiesel is known as transesterification. This process also uses lye (NaOH low concentration) as a catalyst in the whole process. Some of the chemicals which are used in the manufacturing of biodiesel are ethanol or methanol which brings into use methyl esters. Methanol is derived from fossil fuels while ethanol is derived from plants. One of the advantages of using ethanol is that they can be distilled even at the home without any problem.

The most oil source use to make biodiesel is plant oil waste, because if we make from new plant oil is too expensive, and almost impossible to make biodiesel from vegetable oil.

The step on how to process waste vegetable oil into biodiesel as follows:
  • Filtering: In this process, vegetable oil is separate from food particle that still available in the oil. To make easier to filter vegetable oil we can warm up the oil before filter.
  • Removing of water: All the water contained in the residual gangue has to be removed which will make the reaction faster. The water can be easily removed by making the liquid boil at 100 degree C for sometime.
  • Titration: This process is carried out to determine the amount of lye that would be required. This process is the most crucial and the most important stage of biofuel manufacturing.
  • Preparation of sodium methoxide: In this process, methanol is mixed with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium methoxide. In most of the cases, the quantity of methanol used is generally 20 percent of waste vegetable oil.
  • Heating and mixing: The residue is heated in between 49 – 54 oC after which it is mixed well. It should be remembered that process should be done carefully avoiding splashing of the liquid.
  • Settling and separation: After mixing the liquid, it has to be allowed to cool down. After the cooling process, the biodiesel will be found floating at the top while the heavier glycerin would be found at the bottom. The glycerin can be easily separated by allowing it to drain out from the bottom. The person is left over with pure biodiesel which can be used for various purposes.