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Gas Reaction and Solid Reaction

Gas Liquid Reactions
When gaseous reactants are absorbed by a liquid, and a chemical reaction takes place, both chemical reaction and mass transfer may control the overall reaction rate. For analysis of this type of system should be consulted. Books by Astarita, Danckwerts, and Sherwood, Pigford, and Wilke should also be helpful. Treatments similar to these references are likewise applicable to the liquid liquid system if chemical reaction is involved in only one of two partially miscible phases and the overall rate is governed by both mass transfer and chemical reaction.

Solid State Reactions The solid state reactions refer to decomposition and interaction of solids, and are generally more complex than those of other systems discussed preciously. There have been few systematic analyses of chemical reactions in the solid state. Fairly comprehensive treatments of such reactions are presented in two recent publications by Bamford and Tipper and Schmalzried respectively.

General Charact…

Oxalic Acid

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Oxalic acid is an organic compound is a colorless solid crystalline that dilute in water and make a colorless solution. Oxalic acid have chemical formula C2H2O4 is classified as simple dicarboxylic acid, the strong of this acid is greater than acetic acid or vinegar. Oxalic acid often found in many plants and vegetables, also produce in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. This acid is not metabolized by our body but excreted through urine. Too much oxalic acid in our body can react with calcium become calcium oxalc stone, can make problem for kidney. Plant that contain of high oxalic acid like in Asparagus.


Oxalic acid many uses in anodizing aluminum to make black anodized color, use in anodizing oxalic bath for anodizing process. Oxalic acid also use as bleaching agent for both wood and stone. When exposed to the elements, can turn gray. When oxalic acid applied to old and graying wood floor, it brings wood floor to natural white color.

Other uses of oxalic ac…

Hydrochloric Acid

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Hydrochloric acid is a water solution of hydrogen chloride, HCl, are irritating, pungent gas that is extremely water soluble; water solution is generally written with the same formula as the gas. In nature the acid is found in the discharge from volcanoes and, in a concentration of about 0.25% in the gastric juice secreted by the human stomach. It can be made in the laboratory by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on sodium chloride or by the burning of chlorine in an atmosphere of hydrogen. In either case the hydrogen chloride produced must be dissolved in water to produce the acid solution. Nearly 90% of all commercially produced hydrochloric acid is a by product of the chlorination of organic compounds, such as:

CH4  +  Cl2   ➠ CH3CL   + HCl

About 5% is produced by the combustion of chlorine in hydrogen; a similar quantity is produced by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid on sodium chloride.

Hydrochloric acid is principally used in the pickling (cleaning) of steel and…

Sodium Hydroxide

From soda we can generate many compounds, beside sodium carbonate, sodium sulfite and sodium hydrosulfite, sodium sulfide, sodium thiosulfate and also sodium hydroxide. Sodium have industrial uses that required millions of tons annually. Perhaps the most important of these compounds is sodium chloride (NaCl), from which million of metric tons of sodium hydroxide are made annually.

Sodium hydroxide also called caustic soda, is essential to the production of soap, detergent, cleaning compounds, dyes, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. It is also necessary in the manufacture of rayon, cellophane, phenol, naphtol, recorcinol, and oxalic acid. Such industrial process as boiler water softening, food processing, engraving, printing, pulp and paper production, petroleum refining, metallurgy and house hold bleaching agent that preparation is depend on it.

Sodium hydroxide can be form from reaction of sodium with water, but as industrial process this substance usually produce from electrolysis pro…

Soda or Sodium Carbonate

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Soda is the collective name for several forms of sodium carbonate, have weigh of molecule 106. The most commercially important form is the dehydrated product soda ash (Na2CO3). The decahydrate (Na2CO3.10 H2O) is also known as washing soda or sal soda. Soda ash is so called because it was once extracted from plant ashes; now almost all is manufactured by the Solvay or ammonia soda process. The primary users of soda are the glass and chemical industries. Sodium carbonate occurs in nature in combination with the bicarbonate as trona and is recovered from evaporated lakes in California. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3) is used as an effervescent agent in foods, cake soda and as a cleanser. Sodium carbonate have many applied use in Soap making.


In commercial sodium carbonate is mining product. Some production of sodium bicarbonate also as a side product so if this chemicals is produce deliberately will unable to compete the price. Baking soda may just modified from sodium carbonate…

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