Physical and Nuclear Chemistry

Physical Chemistry deals with the structure of matter and the energy changes that occur during physical and chemical changes of matter. This field provides a theoretical basis for the chemical observations of the other subdivision of other subdivisions. Analytical chemistry is concerned with the identification of chemical substances, the determination of the amounts of substances present in a mixture, and the separation of mixture onto their individual components.

Special subdivisions of chemistry are now recognized the account for knowledge at the interface of chemistry and other physical sciences. For example, recent research has involved the chemical origin of life, reactions between simple molecules at low pressures to form such complex organic molecules as proteins found in living organisms.

Astrochemistry is the interdisciplinary physical science that studies the origin and interaction of the chemical constituents, especially interstellar matter, in the universe, Geochemistry is concerned with the chemical aspect of geology, for instance, the improvement of ore processing, coal utilization, shale oil recovery, and the use of chemicals to extract oil from wells that are considered dry by ordinary standards.

Nuclear chemistry deals with natural and induced transformations of the atomic nucleus. Studied in this field now center on the safe and efficient use of nuclear power and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Radiochemistry deals with radioactive isotopes to further the understanding of chemical and biochemical systems. Environmental chemistry is a subdivision that has as its subject the impact of various elements and compounds on the exosphere.


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